This product review will be looking at resuscitation and the equipment available as well as what they’re used for. So, without hesitation, let’s dive in and see what there is and how we use it.
This is a basic and very affordable item of PPE that anyone and everyone should have on them. A very simple disposable one-way valve that stops you getting in your mouth what the patient has in theirs. It also helps a first responder overcome reluctance to do mouth-to-mouth resuscitation on a patient.
This is the best device to have in terms of being portable, affordable and providing peace of mind during resuscitation. The one-way valve in the mouthpiece prevents any bodily fluids from entering the mouth of the first responder. The mask is two hand-operated, so gives a secure and effective seal and also allows jaw thrust for a patient with suspected spinal injuries. Some pocket masks have an oxygen inlet nipple which, when using oxygen at 15L/min, allows for the administration of 50 – 60% oxygen.
Nasal cannula are primarily used as therapy and as an oxygen supplement. This device is not used in active resuscitation, but more for therapeutic treatment. Think of someone with oxygen deficiency, such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia and other respiratory related illnesses. This device is used with an oxygen flow rate of between 1 – 4L/min and patients will receive between approximately 24 – 40% as they are also breathing in ambient air.
The simple face mask is another device used for therapy, but for someone who is a bit more sick. As with the nasal cannula, this one is not used for active resuscitation, but as an oxygen supplement. Thinking along the lines of minor bleeds, asthma and other respiratory conditions and dizziness is where you will use this device. Delivered at a flow rate of between 6 – 10L/min, this will achieve between 40 – 60% oxygen as there is no reservoir bag and the mask has air holes allowing intake of ambient air. The holes in the mask also make the mask safe in case of disconnection of the oxygen tubing as it eliminates the risk of suffocation.
The non-rebreather mask basically has the same shaped mask as the simple face mask. The differences are that there are no air holes that easily entrain air, these are replaced with one way valves. The other noticeable difference is that hanging off the bottom is a 1L reservoir bag. The reservoir bag fills with oxygen allowing the patient to breathe a higher concentration of oxygen, between 60 – 90%. As you will never get a full seal (a safety feature to prevent suffocation if the oxygen tube is disconnected or the supply fails), some ambient air will be entrained. The flow rate on this mask needs to be set at 15L/min and is used for serious injuries, smoke inhalation, carbon monoxide poisoning, chronic airway limitation, and basically anything for patients who require high flow oxygen without actively needing resuscitation.
The bag valve mask is used primarily for resuscitation of the non-breathing patient. Consisting of a mask, a valve assembly (which can also incorporate an bacterial/viral filter), a squeeze bag and an oxygen reservoir bag. This device can be used on its own with room air, or oxygen can be attached and, at 15L/min, almost 100% oxygen can be administered to the patient. The mask can be detached easily and attached to more advanced airway management devices, like a laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube. If using the mask though, the best application is using two hands on the mask and another person squeezing the bag. Single use operator using the ‘C-E grip’ is less effective and normally produces a poor seal. Some problems that may arise from the use of this equipment are a poor seal resulting in inadequate or ineffective ventilation, barotrauma (damage to the lungs if you force too much air/oxygen in), gastric distention (air goes into the stomach), hyperventilation (getting a bit excited with your ventilations) or equipment failure due to incorrect assembly.
That wraps up the review of all things resuscitation. If you need to replace or acquire any of this equipment for your personal use or for your workplace, please give us a call on 1300 423 477.